The history of East Buffalo Township began March 21, 1772, when the legislature of Pennsylvania erected Northumberland County. On April 9, 1772, the first court in Northumberland County erected Buffalo Township in the new county, consisting of all of what is now Union County and parts of what are now Lycoming, Clinton, and Centre Counties. After that time, various townships and counties were cut out of the original Buffalo Township.
At the January 1792 Quarter Sessions Court of Northumberland County, what was left of Buffalo Township, was divided into West Buffalo and East Buffalo Townships. In 1836 a petition was presented to the May sessions of Quarter Sessions Court of Union County to divide "Buffalo Township". At the September Sessions of 1836 the present East Buffalo Township was erected from a part of "Buffalo Township."
In June 1772 William Speddy laid claim to the northern portion of the then Buffalo Township for the state of Connecticut. John Aurand erected a mill near the mouth of Turtle Creek in 1772, which later became known as Jenkins Mill. After that time a number of mills were erected in East Buffalo Township.
The Lewisburg-Mifflinburg Turnpike was incorporated as "The Derrstown and Youngmanstown Turnpike Company" by the Act of April 10, 1826, P. L. 308. The road was constructed through East Buffalo Township. In 1847 the University at Lewisburg, now Bucknell, was established partly in the Borough of Lewisburg and partly in East Buffalo Township. The first class graduated in 1851.
In 1852 the East Buffalo Agricultural Society was formed and in 1868 P. L 716 "The Union County Agricultural Association" was incorporated along with the fairground located in East Buffalo Township. In 1853 "The Lewisburg Centre and Spruce Creek Railway Company" was incorporated and surveys for the right-of-way through East Buffalo Township.
In August 1942 the first Pennsylvania Artificial Breeding Co-Op was organized and located in East Buffalo Township on part of the old fairground. This was the first artificial breeding association in Pennsylvania. Today the fairgrounds are now the location of the East Buffalo Township Administrative, Police and Maintenance Buildings.